ARI’s award-winning Autism Research Review International (ARRI) quarterly journal frequently includes editorials written by ARI’s Executive Director, Stephen M. Edelson, Ph.D. Links to the references of Dr. Edelson’s most recent editorials, Defining Degrees of Autism: The Controversy and a Suggested Solution, Setting Priorities for Autism Research – Autism Research Institute and Challenging Behaviors in Adults with Autism, are listed below.

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Treating autism with contingent electric shock: Are all possible options really considered?

This editorial, written by Stephen M. Edelson, PhD, originally appeared in Autism Research Review International, Vol. 36, No. 4, 2022. Read Treating autism with contingent electric shock: Are all possible options really considered?

  1. Winton, A.S.W.; Singh, N.N.; Dawson, M.J. Effects of facial screening and blindfold on self-injurious behavior. Applied Research in Mental Retardation, 1984, 5, 29–42.
  2. Linscheid, T.R.; Iwata, B.A.; Ricketts, R.W.; Williams, D.E.; Griffin, J.C. Clinical evaluation of the self-injurious behavior inhibiting system (SIBIS). Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1990, 23, 53–78.
  3. Baumeister, A.A.; Baumeister, A.A. Suppression of repetitive self-injurious behavior by contingent inhalation of aromatic ammonia. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizohrenia, 1978, 8, 71–77.
  4. Elkins, R.L.; Richards, T.L.; Nielsen, R.; Repass, R.; Stahlbrandt, H.; Hoffman, H.G. The Neurobiological Mechanism of Chemical Aversion (Emetic) Therapy for Alcohol Use Disorder: An fMRI Study. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 2017, 11, 182.
  5. Hajek, P.; Stead, L.F. Aversive smoking for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Systematic Reviews, 2004, 2001(3).
  6. Barker, J.C.; Miller, M. Aversion therapy for compulsive gambling. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 1968, 146(4), 295-302.
  7. Setty, G. Federal appeals court vacates FDA rule banning electric shock devices to treat self-harming behavior. CNN 2021.
  8. Gonzalez-Romero, M.F.; Avina-Galindo, A.M.; Elbe, D., Friedlander, R.; Vila-Rodriguez, F. Lifesaving electroconvulsvive therapy for a child with autism spectrum disorder, severe self-injurious behavior, and neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Journal of Convulsive Therapy, 2019, 35(4), e55-e56.
  9. . Withane, N.; Dhossche, D.M. Electroconvulsive treatment for catatonia in autism spectrum disorders. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 2019, 28(1), 101-110.
  10. Yu, G. FDA bans electric shock devices used on people with developmental disabilities. CNN 2020.
  11. Eastgate, J. UN demands child electroshock torture investigation in NZ; FDA fails to ban it in US. Citizens Commission on Human Rights International 2020.
  12. Salvy, S.; Mulick, J.; Butter, E.; Bartlett, R.K.; Linscheid, T.R. Contingent electric shock (SIBIS) and a conditioned punisher eliminate severe head banging in a preschool child. Behavioral Interventions, 2004, 19, 59–72.
  13. Edelson, S.M. Introduction. In Understanding and treating self-injurious behavior in autism; Edelson, S.M.; Johnson, J.B., Eds.; Jessica Kingsley Publishers: London, UK, 2016; pp. 11-17.
  14. Editorial Board. To stop a controversial electric shock therapy, the disability community is owed better alternatives. Boston Globe 2021.
  15. Coleman, M. Clinical presentation of patients with autism and hypocalcinuria. Developmental Brain Dysfunction, 1994, 7, 63-70.
  16. Hessen, M.; Akpek, E.K. Dry eye: An inflammatory ocular disease. Journal of Ophthalmic and Vision Research, 2014, 9(2), 240-250.
  17. Patil, P.M.; Balwir, D.; Khune, A.; Dhewale, S. Dry eye and its relationship with status of serum calcium in the body at a tertiary care institute: A case control study. MVP Journal of Medical Sciences, 2018, 5(1), 82-86.
  18. Neuhaus, E.; Bernier, R.A.; Tham, S.W.; Webb, S.J. Gastrointestinal and psychiatric symptoms among children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 2018, 9, 515.
  19. Jyonouchi, H. Self-injurious behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorder: Impact of allergic diseases. In Understanding and treating self-injurious behavior in autism; Edelson, S.M.; Johnson, J.B., Eds.; London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 2016, pp. 91-108.
  20. Coleman, M. Targeted medical therapies and self-injury. In Understanding and treating self-injurious behavior in autism; Edelson, S.M.; Johnson, J.B., Eds.; London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 2016, pp. 18-26.
  21. Casanova, M.F.; Casanova, E.L. Self-injurious behavior: Aggression and Epilepsy in autism spectrum disorder. In Understanding and treating self-injurious behavior in autism; Edelson, S.M.; Johnson, J.B., Eds.; London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 2016, pp. 38-54
  22. Miller, L.J.; Misher, K. Sensory processing disorder and self-injurious behavior. In Understanding and treating self-injurious behavior in autism; Edelson, S.M.; Johnson, J.B., Eds.; London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 2016, pp. 138-150.
  23. Barnhill, K.M. Dietary and nutrition intervention to address self-injurious behavior in autism: Thoughts from five years of clinical care. In Understanding and treating self-injurious behavior in autism; Edelson, S.M.; Johnson, J.B., Eds.; London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 2016, pp. 128-137.
  24. Moskowitz, L.J.; Ritter, A.B. Assessment and intervention for self-injurious behavior related to anxiety. In Understanding and treating self-injurious behavior in autism; Edelson, S.M.; Johnson, J.B., Eds.; London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 2016, pp. 198-230.
  25. Schreck, K.A.; Richdale, A.L. Sleep problems, behavior, and psychopathology in autism: Inter-relationships across the lifespan. Current Opinion in Psychology, 2020, 34, 105-111.

A Historical Perspective on Autism Advocacy and Research

This editorial, written by Stephen M. Edelson, PhD, originally appeared in Autism Research Review International, Vol. 36, No. 3, 2022 – read A Historical Perspective on Autism Advocacy and Research

  1. Rimland, B. Infantile autism: The syndrome and its implications for a neural theory of behavior. Prentice-Hall: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA, 1964
  2. Donvan, J.; Zucker, C. In a different key: the story of autism. Crown Publishers: New York, USA, 2016.
  3. Silberman, S. NeuroTribes: the legacy of autism and the future of neurodiversity. Penguin Random House: New York, USA, 2015.
  4. Lotter, V. Epidemiology of autistic conditions in young children. Social Psychiatry, 1966, 1,124-135.
  5. Lotter, V. Childhood autism in Africa. The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 1978, 19, 231-244.
  6. Maenner, M.J.; Shaw, K.A.; Bakian, A.V.; et al. Prevalence and characteristics of autism spectrum disorder among children aged 8 years — Autism and developmental disabilities Monitoring Network, 11 sites, United States, 2018. MMWR Surveillance Summary, 2021, 70(SS-11), 1-16.
  7. Kanner, L. Autistic disturbances of affective contact. Nerv. Child. 1943, 2, 217-250.
  8. Creak, M. Schizophrenia syndrome in childhood. British Medical Journal, 1961, 2, 889-890.
  9. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 2nd ed.; Washington, D.C., 1968.
  10. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 3rd ed.; Washington, D.C., 1980.
  11. Folstein, S.; Rutter, M. Infantile autism: a genetic study of 21 twin pairs. The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 1977, 18(4), 297-397.
  12. Dhillon, S.; Hellings, J.A.; Butler, M.G. Genetics and mitochondrial abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders: a review. Current Genomics, 2011, 12(5), 322-332.
  13. Goines, P.E., Ashwood, P. Cytokine dysregulation in autism spectrum disorders (ASD): possible role of the environment. Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology, 2013, 36, 67-81.
  14. Cohen, I.L; Gardner, J.M.; Karmel, B.Z.; Phan, H.T.T.; Kittler, P., et al. Neonatal brainstem function and 4-month arousal-modulated attention are jointly associated with autism. Autism Research, 2013, 6(1), 11-22.
  15. Bauman, M.; Kemper, T.L. Histoanatomic observations of the brain in early infantile autism. Neurology, 1985, 35(6), 866-874.
  16. Amaral, D.G.; Schumann, C.M.; Nordah, C.W. Neuroantomy of autism. Trends in Neurosciences, 2008, 31(3), 137-145.

Defining Degrees of Autism: The Controversy and a Suggested Solution

This editorial, written by Stephen M. Edelson, PhD, originally appeared in Autism Research Review International, Vol. 36, No. 2, 2022 – read Defining Degrees of Autism: The Controversy and a Suggested Solution

  1. Kanner, L. Autistic disturbances of affective contact. Nerv. Child. 1943, 2, 217-250.
  2. Rimland, B. Infantile autism: The syndrome and its implications for a neural theory of behavior. Prentice-Hall: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA, 1964
  3. Asperger, H. Die ”Autistischen Psychopathen” im Kindesalter. Archiv f. Psychiatrie 1944, 117, 76–136.
  4. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th ed.; Washington, DC, USA, 1994.
  5. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 5th ed.; Arlington, VA, USA, 2013.
  6. Faridi, F.; Khosrowabadi, R. Behavioral, cognitive and neural markers of Asperger syndrome. Basic Clin. Neurosci. 2017, 8, 349-359.
  7. Gonzalez-Penas, J.; Costas, J.C.; Garcia-Alcon, A.; Penzol, M.J.; Rodriguez, J.; et al. Psychiatric comorbidities in Asperger syndrome are related with polygenic overlap and differ from other autism subtypes. Transl. Psychiatry. 2020, 10, 258.
  8. Brennan, D. WebMD: Asperger’s Syndrome. 2020. (accessed on 15 May 2022)
  9. Lord, C., Charman, T., Havdahl, A., Carbone, P., Anagnostou, E., et al. Commission on the future of care and clinical research in autism. The Lancet 2022, 399, 271-334.
  10. Kolves, K., Fitzgerald, C., Nordentoft, M., Wood, S.J., & Erlangsen, A. Assessment of suicidal behaviors among individuals with autism spectrum disorder in Denmark. JAMA Network Open 2021, 4, e2033565.

Setting Priorities for Autism Research

This editorial, written by Stephen M. Edelson, PhD, originally appeared in Autism Research Review International, Vol. 35, No. 4, 2021 – read Setting Priorities for Autism Research – Autism Research Institute

  1. Bauman, M., & Kemper, T. L. (1985). Histoanatomic observations of the brain in early infantile autism. Neurology, 35(6), 866–874. https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.35.6.866
  2. Folstein S, Rutter M: Infantile autism: a genetic study of 21 twin pairs. J Child Psychol Psychiatry Allied Disciplines 1977; 18:297-321. Infantile Autism: A Genetic Study of 21 Twin Pairs – Folstein – 1977 – Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry – Wiley Online Library
  3. Gonzalez-Domenech, P.J., Atienza, F.D., Pablos, C.G., Soto, M.L.F., Martinez-Ortega, J.M., & Gutierrez-Rojas, L. (2020). Influence of a combined gluten-free and casein-free diet on behavior disorders in children and adolescents diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder: a 12-month follow-up clinical trial. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 50, 935-948. Influence of a Combined Gluten-Free and Casein-Free Diet on Behavior Disorders in Children and Adolescents Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A 12-Month Follow-Up Clinical Trial | SpringerLink
  4. Gorrindo, P., Williams, K.C., Lee, E.B., Walker, L.S., McGrew, S.G., & Levitt, P. (2012). Gastrointestinal dysfunction in autism: parental report, clinical evaluation, and associated factors. Autism Research, 5(2), 101-108. doi: 10.1002/aur.237. Gastrointestinal Dysfunction in Autism: Parental Report, Clinical Evaluation, and Associated Factors – Gorrindo – 2012 – Autism Research – Wiley Online Library
  5. Kanner, L. (1943). Autistic disturbances of affective contact. Nervous Child, 2, 217-250. Autistic disturbances of affective contact. – PsycNET (apa.org)
  6. Lovaas, O. I. (1987). Behavioral treatment and normal educational and intellectual functioning in young autistic children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55(1), 3–9. Behavioral treatment and normal educational and intellectual functioning in young autistic children. – PsycNET (apa.org)
  7. Margolis, K.G., Buie, T.M., Turner, J.B., Silberman, A.E., Feldman, J.F., Murray, K.F., McSwiggan-Hardin, M., Levy, J., Bauman, M.L., Veenstra-VanderWeele, J., Whitaker, A.H., & Winter. H.S. (2019). Development of a brief parent-report Development of a Brief Parent-Report Screen for Common Gastrointestinal Disorders in Autism Spectrum Disorder – PubMed (nih.gov)
  8. Piwowarczyk, A., Horvath, A., Pisula, E., Kawa, R., & Szajewska, H. (2020). Gluten-free diet in children with autism spectrum disorders: a randomized, controlled, single-blinded trial. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 50, 482-490. Gluten-Free Diet in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Randomized, Controlled, Single-Blinded Trial – PubMed (nih.gov)
  9. Rimland, B. (1964). Infantile autism: The syndrome and its implications for a neural theory of behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall  Bernard Rimland’s “Infantile Autism”: The book that changed autism – Autism Research Institute

Challenging behaviors in adults with autism 

This editorial, written by Stephen M. Edelson, PhD, and Marvin Natowicz, MD, originally appeared in Autism Research Review International, Vol. 35, No. 1, 2021 – read Challenging behaviors in adults with autism – Autism Research Institute

  1. Barroso, N.E., Mendez, L., Graziano, P.A., Bagner, D.M. (2018). Parenting stress through the lens of different clinical groups: a systematic review & meta-analysis. J Abnorm Child Psychol, 46(3): 449-461. doi: 10.1007/s10802-017-0313-6
  2. Bauman, M.L. (2010). Medical comorbidities in autism: challenges to diagnosis and treatment. Neurotherapeutics, 7(3): 320-327. doi: 10.1016/j.nurt.2010.06.001.
  3. Carr, E.G. (1977). The motivation of self-injurious behavior: a review of some hypotheses. Psychol Bull, 84(4): 800-816.
  4. Casanova, E.L., Casanova, M.F., Sokhadze, E.M., Lamina, E. (2021). Crosstalk between the immune and autonomic nervous systems and their relationship to anxiety in autism. In S.M. Edelson & J.B. Johnson (Eds.), Understanding and treating anxiety in autism (pp. 44-56). London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
  5. Chen, J.L., Leader, G., Sung, C., Leahy, M. (2014). Trends in employment for individuals with autism spectrum disorder: a review of the literature. Rev J Autism Dev Disord, 2(2):115-127. doi: 10.1007/s40489-014-0041-6
  6. Coleman, M. (2016). Targeted medical therapies and self-injury. In S.M. Edelson & J.B. Johnson (Eds.), Understanding and treating self-injurious behavior in autism (pp. 18-26). London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
  7. Huisman S., et al. (2018). Self-injurious behavior. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 84:483-491. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2017.02.027.
  8. Kurtz-Nelson E.C., et al. (2020). Brief report: Associations between self-injurious behaviors and abdominal pain among individuals with ASD-associated disruptive mutations. J Autism Dev Disord doi: 10.1007/s10803-020-04774-z.
  9. Laverty, C., Oliver, C., Moss, J., Nelson, L., Richards, C. (2020). Persistence and predictors of self-injurious behavior in autism: a ten-year prospective cohort study. Molecular Autism, 11(8).
  10. May, M.E., Kennedy, C.H. (2010). Health and problem behavior among people with intellectual disabilities. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 3(2), 4-12. doi: 10.1007/BF03391759
  11. Matson, J. L. and Rivet, T.T. (2008). Characteristics of challenging behaviors in adults with autistic disorder, PDD-NOS, and intellectual disability. J Intellect Dev Disabil 33(4): 323-329. doi: 10.1080/13668250802492600.
  12. Mazurek, M.O., Kanne, S.M., Wodka, E.L. (2013). Physical aggression in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 7(3), 455-465. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2012.11.004
  13. McClintock, K., Hall, S., Oliver, C. (2003). Risk markers associated with challenging behaviours in people with intellectual disabilities: a meta-analytic study. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 47(6), 405-416. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2788.2003.00517.x.
  14. Miller, L.J., Misher, K. (2016). Sensory processing disorder and self-injurious behavior. In S.M. Edelson & J.B. Johnson (Eds.), Understanding and treating self-injurious behavior in autism (pp. 138-150). London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
  15. Minshawi, F., Hurwitz, S., Morriss, D., McDougle, C.J. (2015): Multidisciplinary assessment and treatment of self-injurious behavior in Autism Spectrum Disorder and intellectual disability: Integration of psychological and biological theory and approach. J Autism Dev Disor 45(6):1541-1568. doi: 10.1007/s10803-014-2307-3.
  16. Murphy, C.M., et al. (2016). Autism spectrum disorder in adults: diagnosis, management and health services development. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 12, 1669-1686. doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S65455
  17. Muskens J.B., Velders, F. P., Staal, W., G. (2017). Medical comorbidities in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders: a systematic review. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 26(9):1093-1103. doi: 10.1007/s00787-017-1020-0.
  18. Shirley MD, et al. (2016) Copy number variants associated with 14 cases of self-injurious behavior. PLoS One, 11(3):e0149646. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0149646.
  19. Steenfeldt-Kristensen, C., Jones, C.A., & Richards, C. (2020). The prevalence of self-injurious behavior in autism: a meta-analytic study. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 50 (11), 3857-3873. doi: : 10.1007/s10803-020-04443-1